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Mon 14 - Fri 18 November 2022 Singapore

<b>Background:</b> Despite similar education and background, programmers can exhibit vast differences in efficacy. While research has identified some potential factors, such as programming experience and domain knowledge, the effect of these factors on programmers' efficacy is not well understood.

<b>Aims:</b> We aim at unraveling the relationship between efficacy (speed and correctness) and measures of programming experience. We further investigate the correlates of programmer efficacy in terms of reading behavior and cognitive load.

<b>Method:</b> For this purpose, we conducted a controlled experiment with 37 participants using electroencephalography (EEG) and eye tracking. We asked participants to comprehend up to 32 Java source-code snippets and observed their eye gaze and neural correlates of cognitive load. We analyzed the correlation of participants' efficacy with popular programming experience measures.

<b>Results:</b> We found that programmers with high efficacy read source code more targeted and with lower cognitive load. Commonly used experience levels do not predict programmer efficacy well, but self-estimation and indicators of learning eagerness are fairly accurate.

<b>Implications:</b> The identified correlates of programmer efficacy can be used for future research and practice (e.g., hiring). Future research should also consider efficacy as a group sampling method, rather than using simple experience measures.