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Mon 14 - Fri 18 November 2022 Singapore

Compared to other programming languages (e.g., Java), Python has more idioms to make Python code concise and efficient. Although pythonic idioms are well accepted in the Python community, Python programmers are often faced with many challenges in using them, for example, being unaware of certain pythonic idioms or do not know how to use them properly. Based on an analysis of 7,638 Python repositories on GitHub, we find that non-idiomatic Python code that can be implemented with pythonic idioms occurs frequently and widely. Unfortunately, there is no tool for automatically refactoring such non-idiomatic code into idiomatic code. In this paper, we design and implement an automatic refactoring tool to make Python code idiomatic. We identify nine pythonic idioms by systematically contrasting the abstract syntax grammar of Python and Java. Then we define the syntactic patterns for detecting non-idiomatic code for each pythonic idiom. Finally, we devise atomic AST-rewriting operations and refactoring steps to refactor non-idiomatic code into idiomatic code. We test and review over 4,115 refactorings applied to 1,065 Python projects from GitHub, and submit 90 pull requests for the 90 randomly sampled refactorings to 84 projects. These evaluations confirm the high accuracy, practicality and usefulness of our refactoring tool on real-world Python code.